Projects in Green Gravel Action Group

Western Australia


Project: Restoring Blue Forests with Green Gravel

Thomas Wernberg

Karen Filbee-Dexter

Melinda Coleman

Sofie Vranken

Nahlah Abdullah Alsuwaiyan

Celina Burkholz

Mason Sullivan

ARC 2019 Linkage Project: Restoring blue forests with green gravel – This project aims to progress green gravel from concept to application on Ecklonia radiata reefs in Western Australia. The project will run over 4 years, during which we will develop and optimize the Green Gravel technique for this region, perform field tests, and conduct large scale restoration trials using targeted source populations. The end goal is to provide scalable and practical solutions to future-proof kelp forests against climate and anthropogenic stress. 



Stein Fredriksen

Tone Kroglund

Frithjof Moy
Karen Filbee-Dexter
Henning Steen
Kjell Magnus Norderhaug
Thomas Wernberg

Project: Grønn Grus

This project is testing the green gravel tool on disappearing kelp forests in the Skagerrak, Norway. The project is part of ongoing research activities at the Flødevigen Station, Institute of Marine Research, to develop restoration approaches to recover lost Sacharrina latissima kelp forests along the southern coast. The project involves laboratory and field experiments to determine effective use of this technique on turf covered reefs. The end goal is to use this technique to restore large areas without the cost of divers or expensive equipment. The Institute of Marine Research ran the first green gravel trials and are continuing to develop this tool. 


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Paal Bakken
Inês Louro
Jan Verbeek
Axel Bugge

Project: Green Gravel Portugal

The project is testing four different seeding techniques using four species of kelps. The green gravel methodology was adopted by the project with the objective of testing how the technique performs in the context of the prevailing oceanographic and environmental conditions of the Portuguese coastline. 

Southern California, USA

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Joleah Lamb
Matthew Bracken
Phoebe Dawkins

Project: Scaling a new cost effective intervention tool to restore and future-proof kelp forests.

California SeaGrant funded project to restore Macrocystis forests using green gravel. This research project is focusing on how to restore these iconic ecosystems, especially in the face of continued environmental change in the ocean. Project tasks include how to raise and outplant kelp to restore lost ecosystems using green gravel, identifying and cultivating resilient strains of kelp, and the creation of a seed bank to preserve genetic material.

Northern California, USA


Michael Graham
Scott Hamilton

Project: Assessment of practical methods for re-establishment of northern California bull kelp populations at an ecologically relevant scale

This project seeks to develop practical techniques for enhancing recruitment of bull kelp in northern California, specifically by: testing the efficacy of various methods for culturing bull kelp, conducting controlled field experiments to determine the most successful method for outplanting bull kelp recruits to areas following sea urchin removal, and monitoring bull kelp outplant growth, survival, and reproduction at field sites.

British Columbia, Canada


Tom Campbell
Chris Neufeld
Sam Starko
Louis Druehl

Project: Macrocystis restoration using the green gravel technique

Studying the viability for green gravel as a tool in restoring habitat forming species of kelp (mainly Macrocystis) on the west coast of Vancouver Island.

Latin America + UK


Pippa Moore 

Dan Smale 

Hannah Earp 

Cat Wilding 

Alex Gamarra 

Alejandro Pérez-Matus

Project: Kelp Ecosystems in Latin America: Pathways to Ecological Resilience

This NERC, Newton Fund, CONICYT and CONCYTEC funded project is investigating the structure connectivity and resilience of exploited kelp ecosystems in order to provide sustainable, ecosystem-based fisheries management. As part of the project, kelp restoration techniques will be tested across a variety of contexts. In the first instance, we will test the performance of the green gravel technique along both a wave exposure and tidal gradient in the UK. We later plan to test the technique as a method to restore threatened Macrocystis forests in Peru.

Tasmania, Australia

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John Craig Sanderson

Scott Ling

Catriona Macleod

Project: Restoration of String Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifra) habitats on Tasmania's east and south coasts

Seacare aim to create a ‘critical mass’ of Macrocystis kelp in currently impoverished areas to increase the species’ resilience to adverse conditions. Replanting trials in Tasmania have already shown signs of success. Plantings are currently occurring at Fortescue Bay, Deep Glen Bay and Lufra Cove on the Tasman Peninsula. This is a Seacare project ( involving a few enthusiastic volunteers working through Eaglehawk Dive Centre. Currently supplied with excess gametophytes generated as part of the CRCp Seaweed Solutions for Sustainable Aquaculture (

Southern New England, USA

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Colette Feehan
Sean Grace

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Project: Restoration of kelp forests and associated ecosystem services in Long Island Sound, Southern New England

Piloting the green gravel kelp forest restoration technique as "proof of concept" for future broad scale kelp forest restoration